What Is Computer: You all must know how important a computer is in today’s digital age, computer is used everywhere. Today computers have replaced the jobs of millions of people. In this era it is very important for everyone to have knowledge of computer.
Therefore, to increase your knowledge about computer, we have written this article, through this article we are going to give you complete detailed information about computer and computer, all this information will prove to be beneficial for you.
We know that you are searching on the search engine that “what is a computer”, so in this article we have told about everything about the computer, whether it is software or hardware, or whether the computer has advantages or disadvantages. From the history of the computer to the future of the computer, all the information is in this article.
After reading this article, you will learn a lot about computer, so without any delay let’s start this article and what is computer.
What is Computer ?
A computer is an electronic device that is made up of many devices. Computer is derived from the English word Compute which is called calculation in Hindi.
The computers which were made in the beginning were made only for calculation, hence the computer is also called calculator. Modern computers are very smart, through which we can do many things in minutes.
A computer is a machine that accepts data as input and then processes it and shows it as a result in the output. To know more about computer in more detail keep reading the article –
Definition of Computer
A computer is an electronic device that receives the instructions given by the user as input, and processes the information on the basis of it and shows the information as output.
Input devices like – Keyboard, Mouse
Output device like – Monitor
Full Name of Computer
In the Internet, you will get to see different full forms of computers, but the current full form of the computer is as follows –
- C – Commonly
- O – Operated
- M – Machine
- P – Particularly
- U – Used For
- T – Technology
- E – Educational
- R – Research
Computer Full-Form – Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used For Technology And Educational Research.
Who was the inventor of computer
In 1823, Charles Babbage created a calculating machine, with the help of which the development of modern computer could be done, hence Charles Babbage is called the father of computer.
Many people have an important contribution in the development of modern computers. Alan Turing is called the father of modern computer.
Father of Computer – Charles Babbage
Father Of Marden Computer – Alan Turing
History / Generations of Computer
The generation of computers shows how computers have developed and how the computers that used to be very big have become so small today, and how it has become the biggest need of human beings. The development of computers is divided into five generations.
First Generation of Computer
Computers developed from 1940 to 56 come under the First Generation. In this generation computer, Vacuum Tube for Circuitry and Magnetic Drum for Memory were used.
These computers were so large in size that they used to occupy as much space as an entire room. And in these Machine Language was used.
First Generation Computer Example – ENAIC, UNIVAC, EDVAC.
Second Generation of Computers 1956 to 1963
Computers made from 1956 to 63 come under the second generation. In this generation computer, transistors were used in place of vacuum tubes, along with their size was also reduced.
These computers used to consume less electricity. Programming used in this was High Level Programming like COBOL, FORTRAN.
Second Generation Computer Example – IBM 7094, CDC 1604, CDC 3600.
Third Generation of Computers 1964 to 1971
Computers made from 1964 to 71 come under the third generation. In this generation computer, Integrated Circuit (IC) started being used instead of Transistor. These computers were advance from the computers of both the generations earlier.
The size of the computer was further reduced due to the use of IC, and keyboard, mouse were used to input data in them.
Third Generation Computer Example – IBM 360, ICL 2900
Fourth Generation of Computer 1971 to 1985
Computers made from 1971 to 1985 come under the fourth generation. Microprocessor was used in this generation computer. In this, thousands of silicon chips were built inside an integrated circuit. Due to which the size of these computers became smaller.
These computers were very advance, they were small in size as well as durable and cheap. Personal computers also started being made in this generation.
Fourth Generation Computer Example – DEC 10, STAR 1000
Fifth Generation of Computer 1985 to Present
All computers made after 1985 come under the fifth generation computer. Computers of this generation are made from ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technology, in which millions of components have been built in a microprocessor chip.
Due to Artificial Intelligence, the coming computers will be able to take decisions on their own.
Fifth Generation Computer Example – Desktop, Laptop
Computer History in India
The first computer in India was brought in 1952 by Dr. Dwijish Dutta inside the Indian Institute of Science, Kolkata, which was an analog computer. After this an analog computer was installed inside the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.
But the computer era in India actually started in 1956, when a computer named HEC-2M was installed in the Science Institute of Kolkata, it is also called India’s first digital computer. After the advent of this computer, India became the second country in Asia to use computer technology after Japan.
After this, in 1966, the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata and Javadpur University together made the first digital computer in India. Whose name was ISIJU. Which was a computer with a transistor.
After this India started becoming a computer and India made more than one supercomputer.
How Computer Works
There are mainly 3 processes in the working of the computer – firstly the computer takes the instructions given by the user, then after processing it, shows the data in the output.
Input – Through user input, the computer instructs what kind of information it needs. Input Device like – Keyboard, Mouse.
Processing – Now the computer processes the inputted instructions.
Output – After this the computer shows the processed data as the result in the output. Output Device like – Monitor, Speaker
Types of Computer
Computers are divided on the basis of their functionality and size.
System based computer
On the basis of working method, computer is divided into 3 parts.
1 – Analog Computer (Analog Computer)
Those computers which use analog signal to display information are called analog computers.
They are used for physical measurements such as measuring pressure, temperature, length, and heartbeat.
Mercury speedometers are examples of analog computers.
2 – Digital Computer
Those computers that use Digit to display information are called Digital Computers.
They convert the input data between 0 and 1 and show it in electronic form. This information is shown in the form of Text, Image, Graphic.
Desktop calculators are examples of digital computers.
3 – Hybrid Computer
Those computers which use both Analog Signal and Digit to display information are called Hybrid Computer.
ECG machine is an example of Hybrid Computer.
Types of Computers by Size
On the basis of size, computer can be classified into 4 parts –
1 – Micro Computer
Computers that are very small in size and can be used by keeping them in a desk. They are also known today as Personal Computer. These are mainly made for use in daily life. These computers are available very cheaply.
Such as – Laptop, Desktop, Notebook, Tablet Etc.
2 – Mini Computer
These are medium sized computers, their ability to work and their cost is higher than both microcomputers. More than one person can work in this type of computer at a time.
3 – Mainframe Computer
These types of computers are larger in size, their working capacity and their cost is higher than both mini and micro computers.
These computers are very powerful and can do many things at the same time. Thousands of people can work in this computer simultaneously.
4 – Super Computer
These are the fastest and most powerful computers, their speed is very high, and they are also big in size. The cost of supercomputers is also high. It is used for certain purposes –
For example, weather forecast, for nuclear energy research.
These computers are commonly used in home, office. Desktop Computer is designed for the work of one person, hence it is also called Personal Computer (PC). Monitor, mouse, keyboard, CPU are used to use it.
Laptop is a microcomputer that does not require any external device to use. Keyboard, mouse, screen all already fit in it. They are much smaller than the desktop and we can also take it with us from one place to another.
Part of Computer
Computer is a complete system which is made up of many types of parts, these parts are called hardware and software.
A computer needs some equipment to work, without these tools a computer is not a computer. All these devices together make up the computer, these devices are called hardware. We can see this part of the computer and touch it with our hands. These parts are as follows –
1 – Input Device
Input is the unit of computer that works to give instructions to the computer, some important input units are as follows –
Keyboard – Keyboard is called keyboard in Hindi, with the help of keyboard gives instructions to the computer in the form of text. Instructions are given to the computer by typing in the keyboard.
Mouse – Through the mouse, the cursor can be moved from one place to another in the computer and at the same time the mouse is used to give instructions to the computer through graphics.
Touch Screen – Touch screen input device is used by the user to place his fingers in the computer.
2 – CPU (Central Processing Unit)
CPU is an important part of the computer, it controls all the activities in the computer, hence it is also called the brain of the computer. CPU is called Central Processing Unit in Hindi. There are also two types of CPU-
Control Memory – It controls the instructions given to the computer.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) – It conducts arithmetic operations.
3 – Output Device
Output is the unit of the computer that shows the instructions received by the input as a result, some important output devices are as follows –
Monitor – Monitor is also called Visual Display Unit (VDU), it displays the result received by the computer in the form of soft copy.
Speaker – Speaker narrates the result received by the computer in the form of voice.
Printer – Printer is used to print the data received from the computer on paper.
4 – Memory
Memory is that part of the computer in which all types of data are stored. Memory is also of two types. Primary Memory and Secondary Memory.
Primary Memory – This is the main memory of the computer, it is directly connected to the CPU. It is also of two types.
RAM (Random Access Memory) – RAM is a temporary memory in which data is temporarily stored. All the software of the computer runs in RAM itself. When the power supply is turned off, all the data stored in it is deleted.
ROM (Read Only Memory) – ROM is the permanent memory of the computer in which the data is stored permanently. Stored data in ROM cannot be changed, in which the data is fixed by the manufacturer company. Store data in it remains safe even after the power supply is turned off.
Secondary Memory – This is also a Permanent Memory which is used for backing up data. This is Non Volatile Memory. Like – Hard Disk, CD.
5 – Motherboard
Motherboard is the most important part of the computer, in which all the important equipments are connected, such as CPU, BIOS, Keyboard, Mouse etc. Motherboard delivers power supply to all devices.
Computer software is a group of programs that control the functions of the computer and instruct the computer what to do. The user can work in the computer only through the software. A computer without software is just an iron box.
The software cannot be seen with eyes nor can touch it with hands. MS Word, Excel, Power Point are all software. There are also two types of software – System Software and Application Software.
1 – System Software
This software is used to operate the hardware and control it. These are also of four types.
Operating System – This is a type of computer program that coordinates between the user and the computer. It explains the instructions given by the user to the computer. Such as – Windows, Android, IOS, Linux.
Utility Program – This software is used to protect the computer. It has nothing to do with Direct Hardware. Like – Anti – Virus.
Language Translator Software – These software translate programming language into machine language of the computer.
Device Driver – These are a special type of driver that works to connect input and output devices to the computer.
2 – Application Software
Application software are those software which give freedom to the user to work in the computer. They are directly related to the user, they are also of two types.
Basic Application Software – This is a group of programs through which the user uses to do his normal work. Such as – Word Processing Program, Web Designing Program, Multimedia Program Etc.
Special Application Software – The software used by the user to do a particular job is called Special Application Software. Such as – Accounting Software, Billing Software, Management System Software.
Features of Computer
Some of the features of computer are as follows –
- Computers are capable of performing millions of calculations at a time, which humans cannot do even in a whole year.
- Unlimited data can be stored in the external and internal storage of the computer.
- Computer functions are flawless. If there is any mistake in the work in the computer, then it is due to wrong programming by the person.
- Modern computers are capable of performing many different tasks simultaneously.
- Use of computer saved time.
- You can earn money sitting at home with the help of computer.
Uses of Computer
Today computers are used everywhere. It has become one of the biggest needs of human beings. Computer can be used in many places such as –
1 – In the field of education – Today computer has become an integral part in the field of education. With the help of computer, the learning ability of children can be increased. Computers are used for many tasks in school such as making reports, conducting online exams.
2 – In the field of banking – computers are used for almost all the work in banks. Computers are used for many other tasks like checking Account Detail, getting print out of passbook.
3 – Computer is used in the field of medicine.
4- In the field of science, there was immense success with the computer.
5 – Without a computer in the office, work cannot be done.
6 – Using computer in daily life has become a part of human routine.
7 – In entertainment – Most of the people entertain themselves by watching movies every day by playing games on the computer.
8 – In the field of defense and military – Computer has made its important contribution in the field of defense and military. The enemy’s missile is tracked through the computer and destroyed.
9 – In government offices – The use of computers in government offices provided convenience to the public.
10 – In Bussiness – Every business is using computer to increase business, computer has become a very important tool for business.
Importance of Computer
In today’s time computer is needed all the time in human life. Computers are found everywhere in homes, in offices, in shops. Whether you are a student, housewife, or a person working in the office, computer has its own importance in everyone’s life.
Importance of computer in the life of students
Nowadays computer plays an important role in the lives of students. School children learn a lot from the computer itself. Along with this, with the help of computers, the knowledge of the students in the technical field has increased.
With the help of computer, students are improving themselves, they learn new things with the help of internet. That is why the importance of computer in the life of students is special.
Importance of computer in education
Computer is very important for the students as well as the teacher. Computer has changed the education system, where earlier registers were used for children’s attendance, exam marks, time table, today these registers have been replaced by computers.
Online classes are also run through computer so that children can get education from home. The contribution of computer in the field of education is invaluable.
Importance of computer in the field of medicine
Computers have also made an important contribution in the field of medicine, patient reports, doctor’s time table, stock of medicines all use computers.
In the field of medicine, computers have made the work of both the doctor and the patient easy.
Importance of computer in modern life
Today everyone has a laptop or desktop in their home. Computer has made the life of human being simple and easy.
With the help of computer, you can also talk to your distant relative through video calling. Sitting at home – When you are bored sitting, you can use the computer for entertainment. You can do many of your work with the help of computer.
Importance of computer in banks
Computers have made a lot of bank work easier. Computers are used in banks for all the information related to the customers’ account, transaction related information. Apart from all this, computer has made valuable contribution in every field, so the importance of computer is everywhere.
Advantages of Computer
- Any data can be stored in a computer.
- Computer makes human’s work easy.
- With the help of computer, any work can be done in seconds.
- A computer can do many different things at the same time.
- It is a machine, so it does not get tired of working, we can get as much work as we want from the computer.
- Countries present in the Internet – You can see the information of the world sitting at home.
- It is your source of entertainment.
Disadvantage of Computer
While another computer has many advantages, on the other hand it also has some disadvantages –
- Using too much computer damages the eyes.
- Security remains a threat because people keep their personal information in their computers, so hackers can harm you to get your information.
- Using the computer without work is a waste of time.
- With the advent of computers, many jobs have been lost, due to which the problem of unemployment is also increasing.
Future of Computer
According to the need of technology and human, computer is also developing rapidly. Where a time ago computers were as big as a house and where today they are easily available in one hand.
Right now a lot of attention is being paid to Artificial Intelligence, so in future such computers will come which will be able to work on their own. Humans may also have to face its disadvantages, but at the same time, many problems of human beings will be solved with the computer of the future.